I’ve heard photography described as the art of capturing light, and perhaps I’ve been guilty of describing it that way as well. Photographic tips often talk about looking for dynamic light, chasing the good light, etc. Yet photography is more than light, it is also time. Consider your camera. Leaving ISO aside, there are two ways to control exposure: changing the aperture and changing the shutter speed.
Time is an essential part of photography. Too little time, and your image will be black; too much time, and it will be white. Every photograph captures a slice of time. Sometimes a very small slice, a small fraction of a second; sometimes a long slice of minutes or even hours.
The human eye is better at capturing light than a camera. The human eye can see detail through a very large dynamic range compared to the best DSLRs out there. This is why HDR is popular, why there camera accessories like split-neutral density filters. But, at least in my opinion, the camera is better than the human eye at capturing time. My camera can capture the action of a running gazelle much better than my eye can. Similarly, it is much better at capturing the movement of the stars across the night sky.
Time makes every photograph unique. Each image captures a different piece of time, and each piece of time is different. I use to tell my kids when they were young, that if they wanted to see something no one in the world had ever seen before, pop open a peanut shell. No one in the world ever saw that particular peanut before (and no one would see it again after they ate it). The same is true for photography, want to capture something no one has every photographed before, take a picture, any picture – you’ve just captured a bit of time that will never be captured again. Okay, I hear you. If you take two photographs one second apart, you have two nearly identical photographs (the extreme example, I guess, being two studio-lit shots of a still life taken seconds apart). I didn’t say your capture would be exciting, only different (and perhaps not even on a visible scale). Making that capture of a small slice of time exciting, making the image worthy to look at, is where the art comes in.
The act of capturing time with a camera is not art. Instead making that capture an experience (both for the photographer and the viewer) is the art of photography. Just like composition makes a big difference in photography, selecting the correct small portion of time to record also makes all the difference. Look at the four examples below of the Colorado River taken from Dead Horse Point State Park in Utah, taken minutes apart and all processed the approximately the same way in Lightroom and Photoshop. I took the first two before sunrise, four minutes apart. The third was taken seven minutes later and the fourth seven minutes after that. Depending on your tastes, the second or the third ones are clearly superior than the first or the fourth (my favorite is the second one). A few minutes made all the difference here.
Selecting the correct time to press the shutter button is not limited to the quality of the light at the time, it also is dependent upon the subject. The best people shots come with when the subjects are showing their emotions to the camera, something that is difficult to capture because it is often so fleeting. And this timing aspect is not limited to people. When shooting scenes with flags flapping in the breeze, for example, I will usually take many shots, just to capture one where the flag looks good. Here’s a couple more examples. The first image, taken on Caye Caulker in Belize, is a little girl fishing with her father. I snapped of a dozen shots, but this is clearly the best, with the girl lightly touching her father. As you might imagine, a girl of this age didn’t hold that pose long, but was quickly looking this way and that, and interacting with a brother just out of the frame. The second shot is of the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco, I wanted an image with the swans in the pond, and was lucky enough to capture them in a good , with one looking directly at the camera. The birds were only in this position for a quick moment, and all the other shots I took don’t come close to the quality of this one.
The length of time captured in your image also makes a difference and, as I mentioned above, can reveal things not readily apparent to the naked eye. This is true both for short exposures and for long ones. For example, in the following image of snow geese in the Skagit River delta area of Washington State, the very short shutter speed was able to capture some unique looking wing angles and positions. In the second example, of the ferry dock at Steilacoom, Washington, a long shutter speed created beautiful patterns in the water. If you are a regular viewer of my photography, you likely know that I love using long shutter speeds for the effects of it creates – the effect of compressing many seconds of time into a single image.
Sometimes two different sets of time can both be important to an image. In this example, taken from my trip up to Harts Pass several weekends ago, a long exposure was necessary to capture the stars. For images such as this, too short a shutter speed will not show many stars; too long a shutter speed will result in star trails instead of points of light. The shutter speed for this image was 20 seconds. (Generally, for star shots without trails, you will need to shoot at 30 seconds or less). However, in this image, I wanted to add some foreground interest, and I chose to do light painting on the tree. I painted the tree for just a couple of seconds, running the light from the flashlight briefly up and down the tree. More than a few seconds would have made the tree too bright; less, too dark.
Here’s one last example of the importance of time to photography. The image below is of a tree with colorful leaves taken while moving the camera vertically downward. I used a shutter speed of 1/8 second. A longer shutter speeds would have resulted in too much blurring; a shorter shutter speed, too little. The proper shutter speed for this type of shot will vary greatly depending on the subject and the amount of camera movement.
These are just a few examples of the importance of time to photography. I’m sure you can think of more. Photography is nothing without light, but it is also nothing without time.
I shot a wedding last weekend. It was an exposure nightmare. The wedding was held at Alderbrook Resort out on Hood Canal in a small meeting room on the front side of the building. A nice enough setting, but one definitely not made for wedding photographers. The room had a fire-place set between several large windows. The bride, groom, and minister stood in front of the fireplace. The curtains were pulled shut on the windows, which was fine because any views out those windows would have been totally blown out. However, with the curtains shut, the room was dark – the lighting provided a nice mood, but not much else. Obviously I had to use a flash.
I wanted to preserve some room detail with the ambient room light, not light up everything with the flash (while simultaneously blowing the bride’s dress out into an overexposed white blob). This called for using a slow enough shutter speed, coupled with a wide aperture, to allow for some of the ambient light to show. I ended up using shutter speeds from 1/30th to 1/50th of a second, with an aperture of f/4 to f/5.6 (yes, I could have opened up the lens a bit more, but I was trying to keep a little depth of field). After the ceremony, we took portrait shots around the hotel. The lighting was not much better in most locations. Again, I wanted to save some ambient light in the background – long shutter speeds were needed.
Now there is a standard rule of thumb in photography that says while hand holding a camera, you shouldn’t have a shutter speed slower than the reciprocal of the focal length of the lens. Here’s an example for the math impaired – say you are using a lens with a focal length of 100 mm, than your shutter speed should be no less than 1/100 of a second. However, I must be a pretty shaky guy, I find things tend to get a bit blurry whenever I go below 1/60 of a second, even with small focal lengths.
The rule-of-thumb, of course, assumes a non-stabilized lens, like the one I was using. I was using my 24-70mm zoom lens for most the shots. I was mostly using it at its upper end, say 40 to 70mm. Now, my camera has a 1.6 crop factor, so it was as if I was using the lens at 64 to 112mm. So, I should be using shutter speeds between 1/60 and 1/120 of a second, yet here I was shooting down as low as 1/30th.
So, at those low speeds, how does a shaky cameraman like me keep the subjects from blurring? The flash does it – freezes everything in its path. Not just camera shake, but moving subjects as well. Electronic camera flash units fire at about 1/1000 of a second. A burst of light so fast it freezes even my worst camera shake – not to mention a nervous bride (not that she was nervous in this case, but you get the idea). So this quick blast of light from you flash unit allows for longer shutter speeds to let in more ambient light. The technique is called “dragging the shutter” (which I think sounds cool) or slow shutter sync (which does not). When using this technique, you probably want to set the camera to rear- or second-curtain synchronization. (What is that you ask – that my friend is the subject of another blog; stay tuned!)
So I was dragging the shutter all day long, all over that hotel; and I was happy with the results. Hopefully the bride will be too.